Reason #82: (Position of the Mazoon – Post 4) – Syedi Najam Khan, Falibility & the Concept of “Mutlaq”

KQ likes to believe that he cannot err or lie because he was Mazoon. KQ and kin have presented the Mazoon in a manner that would lead one to assume that the Mazoon is like the Dai: immaculate and infallible. This is not true. This blog has previously referred to al-Moula al-Ajal Syedi Najamkhan QR with reference to this point. Conveniently, the FatemiDawat website Q&A section and HQ ignore addressing this issue and merely respond by saying that: “Dawat dushmano have maligned Syedi Najam Khan in the past and they continue to do so today.” They do not address the issues raised in Syedi Najamkhan’s QR reference because it destroys the very foundation of their claim.

Yes, Syedi Najam Khan QR was a saheb of great maqaam and stature; so much so that Doat Mutlaqeen bow their heads in sajdah near his qabr mubarak. They do so not because he was a mazoon, but because though he was removed from the position of mazoon his ikhlaas and mohabbat were unparalleled.  Position does not determine the reverence afforded to one,only ikhlaas and deeds do. Al-Dai al-Ajal Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin RA states:

Mumineen, contemplate over the pages of history with the intention of deriving insight. Moulaya Najam Khan, A mazoon of Dawat, one at the zenith of ikhlaas and purity. The Dai of the Panjatan, in order to test him, in order to further raise him in levels of ikhlaas dismissed him from the position of mazoon. The enemies of Dawat always remain in anticipation, and as soon as they learnt of this they wrote to Syedi Najam Khan: ‘For such a minor mistake you were so severely reprimanded? We were stunned when we heard this!’. Following which they wrote — such words that if one was not in possession of ikhlaas and purity, the treasures of imaan, love and mohabbat would have been pillaged — ‘Join us, we will obey you, we will afford you a lofty rank’.

Moulaya Najam Khan — a mountain of faith and conviction, protector of the treasures of mohabbat and love, the knowing — read their letter and gave a firm reply, a response overflowing with ikhlaas and purity:

‘Fools! Imbeciles! Simpletons! These blessings and the position of mazoon were bestowed upon me by my Moula. He has relieved me of it, he is maalik and moula. However, the greatest of His blessings is that he has not taken from me the blessing of imaan. He has kept me as a Mumin. If he were to say ‘You are no longer a Mumin’. If he were to take from me the pearls and rubies of imaan, this string of pearls, where would I go? In the treasures of which worldly monarch will I ever be able to find the pearls of such a blessing?’

(10/05/1416H, Mumbai)

With such fondness and respect did Syedna Taher Saifuddin RA and Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin RA narrate this incident regarding Syedi Najam Khan QR highlighting to Mumineen that the greatest bounty is that of Imaan and anything above that is obtained with ikhlaas and mohabbat. What it also demonstrates to Mumineen is that a mazoon is not infallible. He can make a mistake, and if the Dai al-Zaman chooses he can remove him from this position. In Muntaza’ al-Akhbar, it is mentioned that Syedi Najam Khan, at one instance, revealed what he was not permitted to do so. Therefore, the Dai removed him from the position of Mazoon. HQ argues, that since the Mazoon is ‘mutlaq’, given complete authority, he can do whatsoever he wishes, including revealing Dawat asraar to those he sees fit. If this was the case, and the Mazoon can do whatever he wants, why would Syedna Ismail Badruddin RA remove an incumbent of the position that comes with ‘unrestricted authority’?  The truth is that the only maqaam that is truly unrestricted is the maqaam of the Dai. The Mazoon is mutlaq, ie authorized only within the sphere defined for him by the Dai. If every Mazoon had complete authority to disseminate knowledge or Dawat secrets at will to whomsoever should he choose, as Qutbuddin would have us believe, why was this disclosure by Syedi Najam Khan a mistake? Furthermore, if every Mazoon wielded unbridled authority, why would Syedi Najam Khan be unable to even stay an adnaa Mumin lest his Dai keep him as such? Like an adnaa Mumin, a Mazoon is dependent on his Dai and Moula to keep him within the parameters of imaan. In this regards, a Mazoon and a Mumin are on a similar platform. Conversely, it is unthinkable that within the Dawat of satr, the same could be said for the Dai. For in satr, he is the epitome of imaan, its embodiment, its benchmark, and its gateway. This very clearly shows that both entities being Mutlaq mean very different things.

HQ argues that if KQ did indeed err or make a mistake, why did Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin leave him in his post? The answer to this is simple. KQ is absolutely nothing like Syedi Najam Khan and each era and situation calls for tailored responses. As a Mumin, what should be clear is that Khuzaima is not infallible and that he’s made many mistakes. As al-Dai al-Mutlaq, Syedna Burhanuddin RA chose to leave him where he was. Just as a Mumin commits sins and, in spite of them, is accommodated within the sphere of imaan, similarly, inspite of Khuzaima’s transgressions, he was benevolently maintained in his position. As Husain Qutbuddin keeps reminding us, the gaadi of the Dai is one of rehmat. One thing is certain, however, the Mazoon is not mutlaq in the same way a Dai is; only the Dai can do anything and everything he sees fit.

Despite HQ repeatedly portraying the mazoon as one who holds complete and unrestricted authority and having the unflinching trust of the Dai Mutlaq, the instance of Syedi Najam Khan shows that in fact this authority is restricted and that this trust can be violated. The Arabic word ‘Dai’ is an active participle (ism al-faa´il) whilst the word mazoon is a passive participle (ism al-maf´uul) meaning one who has been given permission. The Dai defines for the mazoon his responsibilities and limits. A mazoon has always been the subordinate of the Dai Mutlaq and is fallible.

Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin RA points out that the position of mazoon was taken away from Syedi Najam Khan in order to further raise him in levels of ikhlaas. This proves that by solely being raised to the position of mazoon one does not reach the pinnacle of ikhlaas. All that matters is ikhlaas.  Syedi Abdeali Imaduddin QR states:

‘The rank of ikhlaas is nothing but honourable, respectable and hard to achieve. Whoever wishes may expend all their efforts in attaining it.’

KQ’s enemy in this instance was his self-admiration, evident in the fact that he chose to publish a book commemorating his 50 years as a mazoon instead of publishing, or at the very least helping to compile, one celebrating Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin’s 50 years as Dai Mutlaq. This trait has seen the downfall of many before him. It lured him with delusions of grandeur and enticed him with notions of position and power, causing him to fail the test brought on upon him, ultimately stripping him of the treasures of imaan. Though, he and his family may adorn themselves with worldly accolades, they remain devoid of the treasure which Syedi Najam Khan considered as the greatest of all blessings, the treasure of Imaan.

HQ continues to mislead his audience by playing on the word mutlaq, which is used as an adjective for both the position of dai and his subordinate the mazoon. Though the word mutlaq is used in both instances, the authorities of both positions vary greatly. For example, the word ‘mumin’ is used in the praise of Allah Ta´ala, to describe the Nabi/Imam/Dai, and is also used to term those who pledge their allegiance to them both (a mumin, believer). The use of the same word does not mean that they all hold the same connotations in each and every context.

Though much celebrated by him and his followers, the fact that Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin RA kept him as mazoon for 50 years is not to be taken as an achievement on KQ’s part but rather as an indication of Syedna Burhanuddin’s sabr and expectation that KQ will rectify his ways. Every act of benevolence, every honour bestowed and every word of prayer and approval uttered was with the hope that he would remain steadfast on Siraat-e-Mustaqeem.

Syedna Taher Saifuddin RA has stated in a naseehat:

‘I am the protector of Dawat

I am the captain of the ship’.

A captain’s decisions and actions are always with the intent of ensuring that the ship along with all those aboard, safely reaches its intended destination. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin’s decision to keep KQ as his mazoon for 50 years can also be understood by the words of the 41st Dai Mutlaq Syedna Abdultyeb Zakiuddin RA:

“It is possible that circumstances and siyaasat (administrative wisdom) determine that such hudood are retained in their position, even if they are completely or partly inadequate in their aqeedah (belief), knowledge and practice. This could be due to a number of reasons which contribute to the betterment of Dawat Hadiyah or to its collective harmony. The application of such policy has been witnessed in the history of past Imams and Doat, and is apparent for individuals of understanding.”

Risaalah Shareefah ‘Rawdat Daar al-Salaam’, pg.257

Al-Dai al-Ajal Syedna Taher Saifuddin RA states:

Al-Dai al-Ajal Syedna Ja´far bin Mansur al-Yemen RA narrates that the Imam has ordained that the Dai Mutlaq lead the Dawat hierarchy in satr. Moulatona al-Hurrah al-Malekah SA instituted the office of the Dai Mutlaq in satr, as per the instructions of the Imam. She appointed al-Dai al-Ajal Syedna Zoeb RA as al-Dai al-Mutlaq and under his authority instituted the offices of Mazoon and Mukasir. The Mazoon and Mukasir constitute the first amongst the ‘mahdoodeen’ or subordinate hudood, that is, dignitaries of Dawat who obey and yield to the absolute authority of the Dai Mutlaq. These dignitaries, submitting to the Dai, are not independent or autonomous but are limited and confined to their spheres of concern and influence.

Some people questioned the 41st Dai al-Mutlaq Syedna Abduttayyib Zakiyuudin RA about his appointment of dignitaries who they felt did not measure up to the august nature of their offices. He replied drawing an analogy related to the aayaat shareefah of the Quran Majeed:

Ale Imran, 7

Ale Imran, 7

The Quran encompasses two forms of aayaat shareefah (verses) Aayaat Mohkamaat and Aayaat Mutashaabehaat. Aayaat Mohkamaat refer to those aayaat that are explicit in their meaning, and do not, for the large part, require further clarification and interpretation. On the other hand, Aaayaat Mutashaabehaat denote those aayaat that may be ambiguous in meaning, requiring further explanation or interpretation for their comprehension.

The parallels being drawn are that Aayaat Mohkamaat refer to those hudood who are infallible, incapable of committing error and only include the Dai Mutlaq in the Dawat of satr. He is invested with amr, divine appointment and his entity and actions are pristine and pure. Conversely, all other dignitaries in the Dawat of satr correspond to Aayaat Mutashaabehaat, whose meanings may require clarification to remove doubt. This means that though their appointment may be through the Dai exercising the Imam’s will, their entities and actions may not always correspond to the high station of their offices. All hudood in satr other than the Dai al-Mutlaq are part of this category, but the Dai al-Mutlaq is the only position that always will remain an aayat mohkamah: infallible and absolute.

(Rishalah Shareefah Zahr al Riyaz al Azaliyyah, pg.20)


In the period of satr, only the dai is infallible. Whoever is appointed to the esteemed position of Dai Mutlaq is always in each and every aspect worthy of the privilege. This, however, does not hold true for any of the positions, ranks or appointments beneath that of Dai Mutlaq, be it mazoon or be it a wali mullah even though they are with his raza mubarak and benedictions.

Another reason for Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin not dismissing KQ, is one for which there is divine precedence, as stated in the Quran:

‘We grant them respite (mohlat) so that they may add to their sins’ (3:178)

As reported by Syedna al-Qadi al-Noman RA in Kitaab al-Majaalis wa al-Musaayeraat, Imam Mu’izz SA has said the following in response to one who may question the Imam’s appointment of Doat (representatives of the Imam in the zuhoor period) and hudood:

He then said if one, who has listened to our statement regarding the shortcomings of previous Doat, assumes that the Imam, despite knowing the Doat’s inefficiencies and shortcomings, is at fault for having selected them and appointed them to these posts, then he is utterly wrong. By god, never [can an Imam be considered in this way].

The seerat radeeyah of Syedi Najam Khan illuminates the path a mumin is to tread with regards to his acceptance of the Dai Mutlaq’s actions. He epitomizes the condition laid forth in our meethaq:

‘If The Imam and The Imam’s Dai choose to bless an individual yet deny another, elevate the rank of an individual while demoting another, show their pleasure with one and their displeasure with another…will you ever doubt their actions?’

KQ on the other hand epitomizes the very notion of doubting the wishes and actions of Imam and his Dai, Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin RA in regards to his conferring nass upon Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin TUS. He has succumbed to the very outcomes the words of the meethaq warn Mumineen against:

‘Will the enemies of Dawat not succeed in entangling you in a web of doubt and uncertainty?’

May Allah ensure that the tenets of meethaq remain entrenched in our hearts, and not only remain for a few days and then are no more.

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